Adjective suffixes are a fascinating aspect of the English language that are often overlooked. These suffixes can be added to the end of a base adjective to change its meaning and create new words. In this article, we will explore some of the most common adjective suffixes in English, how they are used, and examples of words that utilize them. By understanding these suffixes, you can expand your vocabulary and communicate more effectively in both written and spoken English.
What is an Adjective Suffix?
Certain suffixes are typical of adjectives. You can combine these endings with verbs and nouns to create an adjective. Hence, adjective suffixes can change the root word’s grammatical function. For instance, adding -able to the verb prevent produces a new adjective. Words with certain endings like -able suggest that a word is an adjective.
Sometimes when a suffix gets added to a root word the spelling of the root word changes. One common adjective suffix, -ness, when combined with the ending y produces a spelling change. For example, when heavy and –ness join the y turns into an i before producing the new word heaviness. It is important to be aware of whether a suffix transforms the spelling of the root word. Learning these common spelling alterations are critical if you wish to spell well.
There are several common adjective suffixes in English, which can help you identify an adjective when reading and enhance your writing by expanding your vocabulary. Some of these common suffixes include:
- -able (or -ible): This suffix is used to create adjectives that express the ability or possibility of something to happen or be done. Examples: enjoyable, responsible, understandable.
- -al (or -ial): This suffix forms adjectives that describe something relating to, characteristic of, or resembling a certain noun. Examples: personal, territorial, musical.
- -ful: This suffix creates adjectives that indicate the presence of a particular quality or element in a noun. Examples: beautiful, powerful, successful.
- -ic: This suffix is used to form adjectives that pertain to or show a characteristic of a specific noun. Examples: scientific, artistic, romantic.
- -ive: This suffix generates adjectives that express the tendency or disposition of a certain action or behavior. Examples: creative, aggressive, sensitive.
- -less: This suffix produces adjectives that denote the lack or absence of a particular quality or element. Examples: endless, fearless, colorless.
- -ous: This suffix forms adjectives that signify the presence of a particular quality or essence. Examples: generous, dangerous, marvelous.
- -y: This suffix creates adjectives that describe the state, condition, or quality of a noun. Examples: rainy, shiny, happy.
Common Adjective Suffixes
-able or -ible suffix
Meaning: capable of being, capable or worthy of, tending to
-al suffix (-al, -ial, -ical)
Meaning: pertaining to something, relating to, having the quality of
-ant or -ent suffix
Meaning: performing or being, inclined towards something/ someone
Meaning: relates to something, relating to quality or place
-ful suffix (-full)
Meaning: full of, tending, or liable to
Meaning: pertaining or relating to
Meaning: performing or tending toward, nature of
-ious or -ous suffix
Meaning: full of, relating to, qualities of
Meaning: without, lacking, unable to act
Meaning: characterized by, tending to
Meaning: origin, nature
Meaning: tending to, capable of
-an, -ian suffix
Meaning: one who is or does, related to
Adjective Suffix in Context
The list below shows how words created from adjective suffixes operate as adjectives.
- The fragile egg broke when it fell.
- The childish trick was annoying.
- The man had a childlike smile.
- The sleepy girl went to bed early.
- Her mysterious benefactor attended her art exhibit.
Comparative and Superlative Suffixes
In the English language, adjectives can be modified to indicate a higher degree of a quality using comparative and superlative suffixes. These forms of adjectives help make more precise comparisons between people, things, or attributes.
Comparative adjectives denote a higher degree of a quality when comparing two entities. They are generally formed by adding the suffix -er at the end of the base adjective. For instance, the comparative form of ‘small’ would be ‘smaller’, and for ‘fast’, it would be ‘faster’. However, for adjectives ending in -y, the -y is replaced with -ier; for example, ‘happy’ becomes ‘happier’.
Superlative adjectives indicate the highest degree of a quality among three or more entities. Similar to comparative adjectives, they are formed by adding the suffix -est to the base adjective, such as ‘smallest’ for ‘small’ and ‘fastest’ for ‘fast’. For adjectives ending in -y, the -y is replaced with -iest; for example, ‘happy’ becomes ‘happiest’.
Here is a table illustrating the rules mentioned above:
Note that for adjectives with three or more syllables, the words more and most are generally used instead of adding suffixes for comparative and superlative forms, respectively. For example, the comparative and superlative forms of ‘beautiful’ are ‘more beautiful’ and ‘most beautiful’.
Adjective Suffixes in English | Pictures
Frequently Asked Questions
What are common adjective suffixes in English?
Adjective suffixes are common endings added to words to convert them into adjectives. Some common adjective suffixes in English include -able, -al, -ant, -ful, -ic, -ive, -less, -ous, and -y.
How do suffixes change words into adjectives?
Suffixes transform words from one class to another. When an adjective suffix is added to a base word, it changes the word’s function, allowing it to modify nouns. For example, adding the suffix -ful to the noun “beauty” creates the adjective “beautiful.”
What is the difference between adjective and adverb suffixes?
Adjective suffixes are added to words to form adjectives, which modify nouns. Conversely, adverb suffixes create adverbs, which typically modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. A common adverb suffix is -ly. For example, the adjective “quick” becomes the adverb “quickly” with the addition of the -ly suffix.
Can you provide examples of adjectives with suffixes?
Certainly! Here are a few examples of adjectives with different suffixes:
- Comfort + -able = Comfortable
- Danger + -ous = Dangerous
- Romance + -tic = Romantic
- Simplify + -ive = Simplified
- Fruit + -ful = Fruitful
Which suffixes are most frequently used to form adjectives?
Some of the most frequently used suffixes to create adjectives include -able, -al, -ful, -ic, -ious, -ive, -less, -ous, and -y. Studying and practicing these suffixes can help expand one’s vocabulary and improve writing skills.
How do adjective suffixes affect word meaning?
Adjective suffixes alter the meaning of a word by turning it into a word that describes a noun’s attributes. The addition of an adjective suffix can either emphasize particular properties or indicate the presence of specific characteristics. For example, adding the suffix -less to a word like “harm” creates “harmless,” implying the absence of harm or danger.
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