Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING | English Grammar

Some adjectives have the characteristic of ending in -ed and -ing. Learn the difference between Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING with useful rules and examples.

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

Adjectives that End in -ING

In general, adjectives that end in -ing are used to describe things and situations. They have an active meaning. They describe someone that is doing something (acting) or something that is causing something to us, making us feel in a certain way.

Adjectives that End in -ED

Adjectives that end in -ed are used to describe how people feel. They have a passive meaning. They describe someone ‘receiving‘ some kind of action, made to feel in a certain.

Examples of Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

(John is working in a bank. Everyday he does exactly the same thing again and again. He doesn’t enjoy his job and would like to do something different.)

John’s job is boring.

John is bored.

The -ing adjective tells you about something (the job) . The -ed adjective tells you how somebody feels about something (John is bored because the job is boring).

Other examples:

My friend is bored. – (My friend feels bored)

My friend is boring. – (My friend is a boring person)

I am confused. – (I don’t understand something).

And, I am confusing. – (I will cause you to be confused)

To make it clearer, let’s have a look at the following examples:

talking woman

singing bird

smiling girl

They all ‘do‘ something: the man is talking, the bird is singing, the girl is smiling. The –ing adjectives have an active meaning: talking, singing and smiling are used to describe an action.

Now look at these examples with adjectives ending in –ed:

smashed window.

satisfied customer.

frightened child

surprised teacher

These adjectives are used with a passive meaning. Something has been done to the object (the window) or something/someone has caused people to be in a certain state (the child, the customer, the teacher) or feel in a certain way.

The adjectives smashed, satisfied, frightened, surprised describe states or feelings as a result of something done: the window has been smashed, the customer has been satisfied, the child has been frightened, the teacher has been surprised.

Notes | Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

  • We can use adjectives ending in -ing for things or people. Remember that when we use adjectives ending in -ing, it is describing the person or thing.
  • We can use the -ed ONLY for people (or animals) because THINGS CANNOT FEEL.

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING | Picture

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

List of Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

Amazing – Amazed

Amusing – Amused

Annoying – Annoyed

Boring – Bored

Challenging – Challenged

Charming – Charmed

Confusing – Confused

Convincing – Convinced

Depressing – Depressed

Disappointing – Disappointed

Disgusting – Disgusted

Disturbing – Disturbed

Embarrassing – Embarrassed

Entertaining – Entertained

Exciting – Excited

Exhausting – Exhausted

Depressing – Depressed

Disappointing – Disappointed

Fascinating – Fascinated

Frightening – Frightened

Frustrating – Frustrated

Inspiring – Inspired

Interesting – Interested

Pleasing – Pleased

Relaxing – Relaxed

Relieving – Relieved

Satisfying – Satisfied

Shocking – Shocked

Surprising – Surprised

Terrifying – Terrified

Threatening – Threatened

Thrilling – Thrilled

Tiring – Tired

Touching – Touched

Worrying – Worried

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