Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING: Useful List & Great Examples

Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing are a unique and important part of language that allow us to describe people, places, and things in a more nuanced way. Adjectives ending in -ing describe the quality of the noun as it is in the process of being or doing something, while adjectives ending in -ed describe the quality of the noun after the action has been completed.

In this article, we will explore the concept of adjectives ending in -ing and -ed, their various forms and functions, and how to use them effectively in writing and speech. Let’s delve into the world of these adjectives and discover how they can enrich our language.

Understanding Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -INGPin

Adjectives that End in -ING

Generally, adjectives that end in -ING typically describe the ongoing action, process, or source that causes a particular emotion or reaction. They provide information on the characteristics of a person, thing, or situation that create a specific reaction. For example:

  • Tiring (from the verb “to tire”): The long working hours can be tiring for everybody.
  • Exciting (from the verb “to excite”): The amusement park features many exciting rides and attractions.
  • Worrying (from the verb “to worry”): The increasing pollution levels in the city are worrying.

In these examples, the adjective ending in -ING indicates the cause of a certain emotion, reaction or state. While -ED adjectives inform how someone or something is affected, -ING adjectives often indicate the source or process causing the effect.

Adjectives that End in -ED

Adjectives ending in -ED typically describe the state or condition of a person, thing, or situation. These kinds of adjectives often originate from verbs and express the result of an action or behavior. For example:

  • Tired (from the verb “to tire”): She was tired after her long day of work.
  • Excited (from the verb “to excite”): The children were excited about the upcoming holiday.
  • Worried (from the verb “to worry”): He was worried about the results of his exam.

In these cases, the adjective ending in -ED explains how someone feels or the state of a particular situation.

Comparing Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

Let’s take a look at these examples:

  • Space science is very interesting to her.
  • She is interested in space science.

The -ing adjective tells you about something (space science) . The -ed adjective tells you how somebody feels about something (She is interested in space science because it is very interesting).

Here are some other examples:

  • I was disappointed with the movie. I expected it to be much better. (I felt disappointed.)
  • The movie was disappointing. I expected it to be much better. (The movie disappointed me.)
  • We were very shocked when we heard the news. (We felt shocked.)
  • The news was shocking. (The news shocked us.)

To make it clearer, let’s have a look at the following examples:

  • A crying baby
  • A running man
  • A sleeping cat
  • A disturbing movie

They all “do” something: the baby is crying, the man is running, the cat is sleeping, and the movie disturbs the audience. The –ing adjectives have an active meaning: crying, running, sleeping, and disturbing are used to describe an action.

Now look at these examples with adjectives ending in –ed:

  • smashed window.
  • An interested audience
  • A confused man
  • An excited child

These adjectives are used with a passive meaning. Something has been done to the object (the window) or something/someone has caused people to be in a certain state (the audience, the man, the child) or feel in a certain way.

The adjectives smashed, interested, confused, excited describe states or feelings as a result of something done: the window has been smashed, the audience has been interested, the man has been confused, the child has been excited.

Notes

  • We can use adjectives ending in -ing for both things or people. Remember that when we use adjectives ending in -ing, it is describing the person or thing.
  • We can use the -ed ONLY for people or animals because THINGS CANNOT FEEL.

List of Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING

Here’s a list of common adjectives that end in -ed and -ing: 

  • Amazing – Amazed
  • Amusing – Amused
  • Annoying – Annoyed
  • Boring – Bored
  • Challenging – Challenged
  • Charming – Charmed
  • Confusing – Confused
  • Convincing – Convinced
  • Depressing – Depressed
  • Disappointing – Disappointed
  • Disgusting – Disgusted
  • Disturbing – Disturbed
  • Embarrassing – Embarrassed
  • Entertaining – Entertained
  • Exciting – Excited
  • Exhausting – Exhausted
  • Fascinating – Fascinated
  • Frightening – Frightened
  • Frustrating – Frustrated
  • Inspiring – Inspired
  • Interesting – Interested
  • Pleasing – Pleased
  • Relaxing – Relaxed
  • Relieving – Relieved
  • Satisfying – Satisfied
  • Shocking – Shocked
  • Surprising – Surprised
  • Terrifying – Terrified
  • Threatening – Threatened
  • Thrilling – Thrilled
  • Tiring – Tired
  • Touching – Touched
  • Worrying – Worried

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING | Pictures

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING: Useful List & Great Examples 1Pin

Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING | Video

 

Frequently Asked Questions

Can you provide examples of adjectives ending in -ED?

Certainly. Adjectives ending in -ED generally describe emotions and tell us how people feel. Here are some examples:

  • bored (e.g., She was bored at the party.)
  • interested (e.g., He is interested in learning new things.)
  • excited (e.g., They are excited about their upcoming vacation.)
  • relaxed (e.g., She felt relaxed after the massage.)

How do I choose between using an -ED or -ING adjective?

When choosing between an -ED or -ING adjective, remember that -ED adjectives describe how a person feels, while -ING adjectives describe the quality of a thing or person. For example:

  • If you’re talking about a person’s feelings, use -ED: “He feels interested in the topic.”
  • If you’re talking about the quality of something, use -ING: “The topic is interesting.”

Can -ED and -ING adjectives be used interchangeably?

No, -ED and -ING adjectives cannot be used interchangeably. As mentioned before, -ED adjectives describe a person’s emotions or feelings, whereas -ING adjectives describe the quality or characteristic of something. For example:

  • Incorrect: “The book is bored.” (should use -ING: “The book is boring“)
  • Incorrect: “She felt fascinating.” (should use -ED: “She felt fascinated“)

Understanding the specific context and meaning you want to convey is crucial when choosing between -ED and -ING adjectives.

Do all verbs form -ED and -ING adjectives?

No, not all verbs form -ED and -ING adjectives. While many verbs do produce adjectives with these suffixes (e.g., interest -> interested, interesting), some verbs do not form adjectives with -ED and -ING endings, and may produce adjectives with other suffixes like -able, -ible, -ful, -ic, -ive, -less, and -ous. It is important to be familiar with multiple suffixes to recognize and form adjectives in English.

14 thoughts on “Adjectives Ending in -ED and -ING: Useful List & Great Examples”

  1. You explained it all very clearly. However, you say the – Ed cannot be used with things because things cannot feel and in one of the exemple you use a “smashed window”. Could you explain to me the subtlety?

    Reply

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