Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Useful Differences between Inductive & Deductive Reasoning

Inductive vs. deductive reasoning! No matter how unrealistic that sounds, in many fields, such as science and law, “proof” simply doesn’t exist; there can only be facts and evidence that lead you to certain conclusions. For instance, a scientist can’t prove a theory, but he can make observations and realize that this theory must be true. Or, a lawyer can’t actually prove that a crime took place and that one specific person is a criminal, but he can provide convincing evidence.

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning

In order to get as close as possible to the truth, either inductive or deductive reasoning can be used. But what is the difference between them?

Someone who uses INDUCTIVE reasoning makes specific observations and then draws a general conclusion. DEDUCTIVE reasoning is the opposite: here, a specific conclusion follows a general theory.


  • INDUCTIVE reasoning:

Every quiz has been easy. Therefore, the test will be easy.

  • DEDUCTIVE reasoning:

All students in this class play guitar.
Sam is a student of this class.
Therefore, Sam plays guitar.

When to Use Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning

Let’s say that you find yourself at a conference where you know that all the people present are thirty or older. You notice Maria in the room. Therefore, Maria is at least thirty years old. You’ve taken a general theory, i.e. that all people in the room are thirty or older, and applied it to one specific person there, i.e. Maria. So, you used deductive reasoning to determine her age.

In a different example, let’s imagine that you’re asking all of your friends which countries they’ve traveled to. The first friend you ask tells you that he’s been to Italy. The second one also says that he’s been to Italy, and the third one as well. Therefore, you draw the conclusion that all of your friends have been to Italy. Here, you’ve collected specific facts about specific people and applied them to a wider group. You’ve used inductive reasoning.

When you’re using deductive reasoning, your conclusion will be correct if all the statements you say is correct. It makes sense: if something is true for everyone in a group, it will also be true for one randomly selected person from this group. However, if the premise is false, the conclusion will be logical, but also false. For instance, if you state that all cats are black and then draw a conclusion that your neighbor’s cat is black too, it will make sense but it won’t be correct because not all cats are black.

On the other hand, when you’re using inductive reasoning, correct observations won’t necessarily lead you to a correct general conclusion. For instance, the fact that three of the people you know have dark hair doesn’t mean that all the people you know have dark hair. In other words, something that is true about some certain members of the group doesn’t have to be true about the group as a whole.

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Examples

DEDUCTIVE reasoning:

  • At the conference, all the people present are thirty or older.
    Maria is in the room.
    Therefore, Maria is at least thirty years old.

INDUCTIVE reasoning:

  • The teacher used PPT in the last few classes. Therefore, the teacher will use PPT tomorrow.

Difference between Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning | Picture

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Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Difference

Last Updated on March 15, 2021

4 thoughts on “Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Useful Differences between Inductive & Deductive Reasoning”

  1.     I am going to start this post by stating that the two statements were confusing to me as to whether they were inductive or deductive statements. These two statements do not contain clear indicators and that is what confused me.  
        I believe that the statement, “All laptops are computers. Therefore, all computers are laptops.” might be an inductive statement because logically it may be true but realistically it is not true. The statement, all laptops are computers is true; but the statement that all computers are laptops is not true. An inductive argument aims at developing a theory. It is logically true, but it may or may not realistically be true. The premise is true, but the conclusion may or may not be true. In an inductive argument a person makes observations and then draws a conclusion or a theory. In this case it is not true.  
        In deductive reasoning a person uses an existing theory to prove a conclusion. “The learning process of people who are kinesthetic learners can be improved if they use a laptop. Jack’s parents should buy him a laptop.”  is a deductive argument since if the premise is true the conclusion must also be true. A deductive argument aims at testing an existing theory. The theory being that the learning process of kinesthetic learners can be improved if they use a laptop. The conclusion then based on the theory is that Jack’s parents should buy him a laptop. The statement is logically and realistically true making it a deductive argument or statement. 

    • “All laptops are computers, is deductive because the term laptop is universally used only to describe a type of computer, “all computers are laptops” is inductive because while laptops are a type of computer it can not prove there are no other types of computer and draws a general but incorrect conclusion.


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