Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English

Last Updated on November 8, 2023

Learn useful Mathematical symbols (equal sign ‘=’, not equal sign ‘≠’, approximately equal sign ‘≈’…) with images and examples. In English, there are certain symbols which are used in math and each of these has a name. It is very useful to be able to recall the names of these symbols as this will greatly assist you in your conversation and especially when looking at written English. Perhaps you are a student, in this case, these math symbols will be extremely handy to have in your arsenal. Not only that, but by being able to state the names of these symbols, you will begin to sound more like a native speaker.

Mathematical Symbols

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in EnglishPin

List of Mathematics Symbols

  • Addition
  • Subtraction
  • Multiplication
  • Division
  • Plus-minus
  • Strict inequality
  • Equality
  • Inequation
  • Tilde
  • Congruence
  • Infinity
  • Inequality
  • Material equivalence
  • Material implication
  • Theta
  • Empty set
  • Triangle or delta

Mathematical Symbols Image: Useful List of Math Symbols in English

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in EnglishPin

  • For all
  • Pi constant
  • Integral
  • Intersection
  • Union
  • Factorial
  • Therefore
  • Square root
  • Perpendicular
  • Exists
  • Line
  • Line segment
  • Ray
  • Right angle
  • Angle
  • Summation
  • Braces (grouping)
  • Brackets
  • Parentheses (grouping)

Math Symbols with Images and Examples

Learn these Math symbols with images, examples and video lessons to improve your Math vocabulary in English. 

Addition

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 1Pin

–  Read as: Plus/ Add

–  Example: “I have two apples, plus three more, so now I have five apples.” (2 + 3 = 5)

Subtraction

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 2Pin

–  Read as: Minus

– Example: “Five minus one equals four.” (5 – 1 = 4)

Multiplication

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 3Pin

–  Read as: TimesMultiplied by

– Example: “If you multiply 5 by 4, the result is 20.” (4 x 5 = 20)

Division

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 4Pin

–  Read as: Divided by

– Example: “If you divide 10 by 2, the result is 5.” (10 : 2 =5)

Plus-minus

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 5Pin

–  Read as: Plus or minus

– Example: “Six plus or minus three equals nine or three.” (6 ± 3 = 9 or 3)

Strict inequality

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 6Pin

–  Read as: Is greater than

– Example: “If x is strictly greater than 3, we can write it as x > 3.”

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 7Pin

–  Read as: Is less than

– Example: “If y is strictly less than 10, we can write it as y < 10.” 

Equality

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 8Pin

–  Read as: Is equal to

– Example: “If the sum of 2 and 3 is equal to 5, we can write it as 2 + 3 = 5.”

Inequation

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 9Pin

–  Read as: Is not equal to

– Example: “If y is not equal to 0, we can write it as y ≠ 0, which is an inequation.”

Tilde

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 10Pin

–  Read as: Is similar to

– Example: “π is similar to 3.14” (π ~ 3.14)

Congruence

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 11Pin

–  Read as: Is congruent to

– Example: “If triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF, we can write it as ABC ≅ DEF.”

Infinity

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 12Pin

–  Read as: Infinity

– Example: “The set of all natural numbers (1, 2, 3, …) goes on to infinity.”

Inequality

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 13Pin

–  Read as: Is greater than or equals

– Example: “If x is greater than or equal to 5, we can write it as x ≥ 5” 

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 14Pin

–  Read as: Is less than or equals

– Example: “If y is less than or equal to 10, we can write it as y ≤ 10”

Material equivalence

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 15Pin

–  Read as: Is equivalent to

– Example: “If a + b ⇔ c, we can say that a + b is equivalent to c.”

Material implication

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 16Pin

–  Read as: Implies

– Example: “If x > 5 ⇒ x + 2 > 7, we can say that if x is greater than 5, implies that x + 2 is greater than 7.”

Theta

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 17Pin

–  Read as: Theta

– Example: The symbol Theta (θ) is commonly used to represent an angle in a geometric figure or in trigonometry.

Empty set

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 18Pin

–  Read as: Empty set

– Example:

Let A = {x | x is an even number greater than 10} and B = {x | x is an odd number less than 5}.

What is A ∩ B, the intersection of sets A and B?

Since B is the empty set (∅), there are no elements in common between A and B. Therefore, A ∩ B is also the empty set (∅).

Triangle or delta

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 19Pin

–  Read as: Triangle/ Delta

– Example: “The Greek letter delta (Δ) is often used to represent the area of a triangle, where Δ = 1/2 base x height.”

For all

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 20Pin

–  Read as: For all

– Example: “For all positive integers n, the sum of the first n odd numbers is equal to n². This statement means that if we add up the first n odd numbers (1, 3, 5, …), the result will always be equal to n², and it holds true for every positive integer n.”

Pi constant

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 21Pin

–  Read as: Pi

– Example: “The number π (pi) is a mathematical constant that represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.”

Integral

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 22Pin

–  Read as: Integral

– Example: “The integral of the function f(x) = x² from 0 to 1 represents the area under the curve of the function between x = 0 and x = 1, and it is equal to 1/3.”

Intersection

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 23Pin

–  Read as: Intersection of two sets

– Example: “If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, then the intersection of A and B is {3, 4}, since these are the only elements that are in both sets. We can write this as A ∩ B = {3, 4}.”

Union

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 24Pin

–  Read as: Union of two sets

– Example: “If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, then the union of A and B is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, since these are all the elements that are in either A or B. We can write this as A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.”

Factorial

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 25Pin

–  Read as: Factorial

– Example:  “5! (read as “5 factorial”) is equal to 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1, which is equal to 120.”

Therefore

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 26Pin

–  Read as: Therefore

– Example: “If a triangle has two sides of equal length and the angles opposite those sides are also equal, therefore the triangle is isosceles.” 

Square root

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 27Pin

–  Read as: Square root of

– Example: “The square root of 9 is 3, because 3 x 3 = 9.”(√9=3)

Perpendicular

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 28Pin

–  Read as: Is perpendicular to

– Example: “The diagonals of a square, which are perpendicular to each other and bisect each other.”

Exists

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 29Pin

–  Read as: Exists

– Example:  “If we say that “there exists a real number x such that x² + 1 = 0,” we mean that there is at least one real number that satisfies this equation.”

Percent

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 30Pin

–  Read as: Percent

– Example: “If we want to calculate what 15% of 80 is, we can write it as 15% × 80 = 0.15 × 80 = 12. This means that 15% of 80 is equal to 12.”

Line

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 31Pin

–  Read as: Line AB

– Example: “If we have two points A and B on a line, we can refer to the line that passes through them as line AB. We can write this using the symbol for a line as AB.”

Line segment

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 32Pin

–  Read as: Segment AB

– Example: “If we have two points A and B and we want to refer to the line segment that goes from A to B, we can call it segment AB.”

Ray

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 33Pin

–  Read as: Ray AB

– Example: “If we have a point A and a point B on a line such that B is on the ray that extends from A, we can refer to the ray as ray AB.”

Right angle

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 34Pin

–  Read as: Right angle

– Example: “If we have a square, each of its four corners forms a right angle, and we can represent each of these angles using the symbol ⊾.”

Angle

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 35Pin

–  Read as: Angle

– Example: “If we have two intersecting lines, the angle formed by the two lines can be represented using the symbol ∠ABC, where A and C are points on one line and B is the vertex of the angle.”

Summation

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 36Pin

–  Read as: Sum ofSigma

– Example: “The sum of 3 and 5 is 8, which we can write as 3 + 5 = 8.” (Σ(3, 5)=8)

Braces (grouping)

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 37Pin

–  Read as: Braces

– Example: “If we want to represent the set of all even numbers between 1 and 10, we can write it as {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, using braces to group together the elements of the set.”

Brackets

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 38Pin

–  Read as: Brackets

– Example:  “If we want to distribute the factor 3 to the sum of 4 and 2, we can write it as 3[4 + 2], which means 3 times the sum of 4 and 2.”

Parentheses (grouping)

Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English 39Pin

–  Read as: Parentheses

Example: “If we want to calculate the value of 4 plus 2 times 3, we can write it as 4 + (2 × 3), which means 2 times 3 is calculated first, and then the result is added to 4.”

Learn more how and when to use Parentheses () Brackets [] in English.

Math Symbols Video

Learn useful math symbols with American English pronunciation.

(Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English)

Frequently Asked Questions

What are common geometry symbols?

In geometry, we often encounter several common symbols that represent various concepts. Some of these include:

  • ∠: angle symbol, representing the geometric concept of an angle formed by two rays.
  • ∥: parallel symbol, signifying two lines or line segments that are parallel.
  • ⊥: perpendicular symbol, indicating that two lines or line segments are perpendicular to each other.
  • ≅: congruence symbol, denoting that two geometric figures have the same shape and size.
  • ≈: similarity symbol, signifying that two geometric figures have the same shape but not necessarily the same size.
  • Δ: triangle symbol, typically used to represent a triangle in shorthand.

What is the meaning of the sigma symbol in math?

The sigma symbol (Σ) in mathematics represents summation. It is used to indicate the sum of a sequence of terms or elements. Given a finite sequence, the sigma notation is written as:

Σ (expression)

where the “expression” denotes the terms being added. The summation may also include explicit limits for the index, such as:

Σ (from i=1 to n) (expression)

In this example, the index “i” takes on successive values from 1 to n.

What does the ∧ symbol signify in mathematics?

The ∧ symbol in mathematics indicates the logical “and” operation or the logical conjunction. It is mainly used in set theory, logic, and Boolean algebra. For two propositions P and Q, their conjunction can be denoted as P ∧ Q, which is true only if both P and Q are true.

Can you provide a math symbols chart?

A math symbols chart typically includes the most commonly used symbols, grouped by relevant subject or usage. Here is a brief chart of some basic arithmetic and algebra symbols:

  • +: addition
  • -: subtraction
  • × or *: multiplication
  • ÷ or /: division
  • =: equality
  • ≠: not equal to
  • <: less than
  • >: greater than
  • ≤: less than or equal to
  • ≥: greater than or equal to

For a more comprehensive chart covering various areas such as trigonometry, calculus, statistics, and more, you can refer to online resources that specialize in math symbols.

What is the meaning of the <> symbol in math?

In mathematics, the <> symbol is typically used to represent inequality, essentially denoting “not equal to.” The symbol can be written as ≠or ≠. For example, if x ≠y, it means that x and y are not equal or have different values. 

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