Mathematical symbols like the equal sign (‘=’), not equal sign (‘≠’), and approximately equal sign (‘≈’) are essential tools in understanding and communicating math. These symbols have specific names and meanings, making them useful in conversations and written English.

The reference covers key areas including a detailed list of mathematical symbols, images and examples of these math symbols. This structured approach will make it easier for you to learn and remember these important tools.

Contents

## Mathematical Symbols List

### Mathematics Symbols Words

- Addition
- Subtraction
- Multiplication
- Division
- Plus-minus
- Strict inequality
- Equality
- Inequation
- Tilde
- Congruence
- Infinity
- Inequality
- Material equivalence
- Material implication
- Theta
- Empty set
- Triangle or delta
- For all
- Pi constant
- Integral
- Intersection
- Union
- Factorial
- Therefore
- Square root
- Perpendicular
- Exists
- Line
- Line segment
- Ray
- Right angle
- Angle
- Summation
- Braces (grouping)
- Brackets
- Parentheses (grouping)

### Math Symbols with Images and Examples

Learn these Math symbols with images, examples and video lessons to improve your Math vocabulary in English.

**Addition**

– Read as: **Plus**/ **Add**

– Example: “*I have two apples, plus three more, so now I have five apples.” (2 + 3 = 5)*

**Subtraction**

– Read as: **Minus**

– Example: “*Five minus one equals four.*” (5 – 1 = 4)

**Multiplication**

– Read as: **Times**/ **Multiplied by**

– Example: *“If you multiply 5 by 4, the result is 20.”* (4 x 5 = 20)

**Division**

– Read as: **Divided by**

– Example: *“If you divide 10 by 2, the result is 5.”* (10 : 2 =5)

**Plus-minus**

– Read as: **Plus or minus**

– Example: *“Six plus or minus three equals nine or three.” *(6 ± 3 = 9 or 3)

**Strict inequality**

– Read as: **Is greater than**

– Example: *“If x is strictly greater than 3, we can write it as x > 3.”*

– Read as: **Is less than**

– Example: *“If y is strictly less than 10, we can write it as y < 10.”*

**Equality**

– Read as: **Is equal to**

– Example: *“If the sum of 2 and 3 is equal to 5, we can write it as 2 + 3 = 5.”*

**Inequation**

– Read as: **Is not equal to**

– Example: *“If y is not equal to 0, we can write it as y ≠ 0, which is an inequation.”*

**Tilde**

– Read as: **Is similar to**

– Example: “π is similar to 3.14” (π ~ 3.14)

**Congruence**

– Read as: **Is congruent to**

– Example: *“If triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF, we can write it as ABC ≅ DEF.”*

**Infinity**

– Read as: **Infinity**

– Example: “*The set of all natural numbers (1, 2, 3, …) goes on to infinity.”*

**Inequality**

– Read as: **Is greater than or equals**

– Example: *“If x is greater than or equal to 5, we can write it as x ≥ 5”*

– Read as: **Is less than or equals**

– Example: *“If y is less than or equal to 10, we can write it as y ≤ 10”*

**Material equivalence**

– Read as: **Is equivalent to**

– Example: *“If a + b ⇔ c, we can say that a + b is equivalent to c.”*

**Material implication**

– Read as: **Implies**

– Example: *“If x > 5 ⇒ x + 2 > 7, we can say that if x is greater than 5, implies that x + 2 is greater than 7.”*

**Theta**

– Read as: **Theta**

– Example: *The symbol Theta (θ) is commonly used to represent an angle in a geometric figure or in trigonometry.*

**Empty set**

– Read as: **Empty set**

– Example:

*Let A = {x | x is an even number greater than 10} and B = {x | x is an odd number less than 5}.*

*What is A ∩ B, the intersection of sets A and B?*

*Since B is the empty set (∅), there are no elements in common between A and B. Therefore, A ∩ B is also the empty set (∅).*

**Triangle or delta**

– Read as: **Triangle**/ **Delta**

– Example: “*The Greek letter delta (Δ) is often used to represent the area of a triangle, where Δ = 1/2 base x height.”*

**For all**

– Read as: **For all**

– Example: “*For all positive integers n, the sum of the first n odd numbers is equal to n². This statement means that if we add up the first n odd numbers (1, 3, 5, …), the result will always be equal to n², and it holds true for every positive integer n.”*

**Pi constant**

– Read as: **Pi**

– Example: *“The number π (pi) is a mathematical constant that represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.”*

**Integral**

– Read as: **Integral**

– Example: “The integral of the function f(x) = x² from 0 to 1 represents the area under the curve of the function between x = 0 and x = 1, and it is equal to 1/3.”

**Intersection**

– Read as: **Intersection of two sets**

– Example: *“If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, then the intersection of A and B is {3, 4}, since these are the only elements that are in both sets. We can write this as A ∩ B = {3, 4}.”*

**Union**

– Read as: **Union of two sets**

– Example:* “If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, then the union of A and B is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, since these are all the elements that are in either A or B. We can write this as A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.”*

**Factorial**

– Read as: **Factorial**

– Example: *“5! (read as “5 factorial”) is equal to 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1, which is equal to 120.”*

**Therefore**

– Read as: **Therefore**

– Example: *“If a triangle has two sides of equal length and the angles opposite those sides are also equal, therefore the triangle is isosceles.” *

**Square root**

– Read as: **Square root of**

– Example: *“The square root of 9 is 3, because 3 x 3 = 9.”(√9=3)*

**Perpendicular**

– Read as: **Is perpendicular to**

– Example:* “The diagonals of a square, which are perpendicular to each other and bisect each other.”*

**Exists**

– Read as: **Exists**

– Example: *“If we say that “there exists a real number x such that x² + 1 = 0,” we mean that there is at least one real number that satisfies this equation.”*

**Percent**

– Read as: **Percent**

– Example: *“If we want to calculate what 15% of 80 is, we can write it as 15% × 80 = 0.15 × 80 = 12. This means that 15% of 80 is equal to 12.”*

**Line**

– Read as: **Line AB**

– Example: *“If we have two points A and B on a line, we can refer to the line that passes through them as line AB. We can write this using the symbol for a line as AB.”*

**Line segment**

– Read as: **Segment AB**

– Example: *“If we have two points A and B and we want to refer to the line segment that goes from A to B, we can call it segment AB.”*

**Ray**

– Read as: **Ray AB**

– Example: *“If we have a point A and a point B on a line such that B is on the ray that extends from A, we can refer to the ray as ray AB.”*

**Right angle**

– Read as: **Right angle**

– Example: *“If we have a square, each of its four corners forms a right angle, and we can represent each of these angles using the symbol ⊾.”*

**Angle**

– Read as: **Angle**

– Example: “*If we have two intersecting lines, the angle formed by the two lines can be represented using the symbol ∠ABC, where A and C are points on one line and B is the vertex of the angle.”*

**Summation**

– Read as: **Sum of**/ **Sigma**

– Example: *“The sum of 3 and 5 is 8, which we can write as 3 + 5 = 8.” (Σ(3, 5)=8)*

**Braces** (grouping)

– Read as: **Braces**

– Example: “*If we want to represent the set of all even numbers between 1 and 10, we can write it as {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, using braces to group together the elements of the set.”*

**Brackets**

– Read as: **Brackets**

– Example: *“If we want to distribute the factor 3 to the sum of 4 and 2, we can write it as 3[4 + 2], which means 3 times the sum of 4 and 2.”*

**Parentheses** (grouping)

– Read as: **Parentheses**

Example: *“If we want to calculate the value of 4 plus 2 times 3, we can write it as 4 + (2 × 3), which means 2 times 3 is calculated first, and then the result is added to 4.”*

Learn more how and when to use Parentheses () Brackets [] in English.

## Mathematical Symbols List | Video

Learn useful math symbols with American English pronunciation.

- Adverbs Worksheet – Adverbs Exercises - December 21, 2023
- What Does the Term “Rapport” Mean? - November 28, 2023
- What Does the Term “Solidarity” Mean? - November 28, 2023