# Mathematical Symbols List in English

Mathematical symbols like the equal sign (‘=’), not equal sign (‘≠’), and approximately equal sign (‘≈’) are essential tools in understanding and communicating math. These symbols have specific names and meanings, making them useful in conversations and written English.

The reference covers key areas including a detailed list of mathematical symbols, images and examples of these math symbols. This structured approach will make it easier for you to learn and remember these important tools.

Contents

## Mathematical Symbols List

### Mathematics Symbols Words

• Subtraction
• Multiplication
• Division
• Plus-minus
• Strict inequality
• Equality
• Inequation
• Tilde
• Congruence
• Infinity
• Inequality
• Material equivalence
• Material implication
• Theta
• Empty set
• Triangle or delta
• For all
• Pi constant
• Integral
• Intersection
• Union
• Factorial
• Therefore
• Square root
• Perpendicular
• Exists
• Line
• Line segment
• Ray
• Right angle
• Angle
• Summation
• Braces (grouping)
• Brackets
• Parentheses (grouping)

### Math Symbols with Images and Examples

Learn these Math symbols with images, examples and video lessons to improve your Math vocabulary in English.

–  Example: “I have two apples, plus three more, so now I have five apples.” (2 + 3 = 5)

#### Subtraction

– Example: “Five minus one equals four.” (5 – 1 = 4)

#### Multiplication

– Example: “If you multiply 5 by 4, the result is 20.” (4 x 5 = 20)

#### Division

– Example: “If you divide 10 by 2, the result is 5.” (10 : 2 =5)

#### Plus-minus

–  Read as: Plus or minus

– Example: “Six plus or minus three equals nine or three.” (6 ± 3 = 9 or 3)

#### Strict inequality

–  Read as: Is greater than

– Example: “If x is strictly greater than 3, we can write it as x > 3.”

–  Read as: Is less than

– Example: “If y is strictly less than 10, we can write it as y < 10.”

#### Equality

–  Read as: Is equal to

– Example: “If the sum of 2 and 3 is equal to 5, we can write it as 2 + 3 = 5.”

#### Inequation

–  Read as: Is not equal to

– Example: “If y is not equal to 0, we can write it as y ≠ 0, which is an inequation.”

#### Tilde

–  Read as: Is similar to

– Example: “π is similar to 3.14” (π ~ 3.14)

#### Congruence

–  Read as: Is congruent to

– Example: “If triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF, we can write it as ABC ≅ DEF.”

#### Infinity

– Example: “The set of all natural numbers (1, 2, 3, …) goes on to infinity.”

#### Inequality

–  Read as: Is greater than or equals

– Example: “If x is greater than or equal to 5, we can write it as x ≥ 5”

–  Read as: Is less than or equals

– Example: “If y is less than or equal to 10, we can write it as y ≤ 10”

#### Material equivalence

–  Read as: Is equivalent to

– Example: “If a + b ⇔ c, we can say that a + b is equivalent to c.”

#### Material implication

– Example: “If x > 5 ⇒ x + 2 > 7, we can say that if x is greater than 5, implies that x + 2 is greater than 7.”

#### Theta

– Example: The symbol Theta (θ) is commonly used to represent an angle in a geometric figure or in trigonometry.

#### Empty set

– Example:

Let A = {x | x is an even number greater than 10} and B = {x | x is an odd number less than 5}.

What is A ∩ B, the intersection of sets A and B?

Since B is the empty set (∅), there are no elements in common between A and B. Therefore, A ∩ B is also the empty set (∅).

#### Triangle or delta

– Example: “The Greek letter delta (Δ) is often used to represent the area of a triangle, where Δ = 1/2 base x height.”

#### For all

– Example: “For all positive integers n, the sum of the first n odd numbers is equal to n². This statement means that if we add up the first n odd numbers (1, 3, 5, …), the result will always be equal to n², and it holds true for every positive integer n.”

#### Pi constant

– Example: “The number π (pi) is a mathematical constant that represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.”

#### Integral

– Example: “The integral of the function f(x) = x² from 0 to 1 represents the area under the curve of the function between x = 0 and x = 1, and it is equal to 1/3.”

#### Intersection

–  Read as: Intersection of two sets

– Example: “If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, then the intersection of A and B is {3, 4}, since these are the only elements that are in both sets. We can write this as A ∩ B = {3, 4}.”

#### Union

–  Read as: Union of two sets

– Example: “If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, then the union of A and B is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, since these are all the elements that are in either A or B. We can write this as A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.”

#### Factorial

– Example:  “5! (read as “5 factorial”) is equal to 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1, which is equal to 120.”

#### Therefore

– Example: “If a triangle has two sides of equal length and the angles opposite those sides are also equal, therefore the triangle is isosceles.”

#### Square root

–  Read as: Square root of

– Example: “The square root of 9 is 3, because 3 x 3 = 9.”(√9=3)

#### Perpendicular

–  Read as: Is perpendicular to

– Example: “The diagonals of a square, which are perpendicular to each other and bisect each other.”

#### Exists

– Example:  “If we say that “there exists a real number x such that x² + 1 = 0,” we mean that there is at least one real number that satisfies this equation.”

Percent

– Example: “If we want to calculate what 15% of 80 is, we can write it as 15% × 80 = 0.15 × 80 = 12. This means that 15% of 80 is equal to 12.”

#### Line

– Example: “If we have two points A and B on a line, we can refer to the line that passes through them as line AB. We can write this using the symbol for a line as AB.”

#### Line segment

– Example: “If we have two points A and B and we want to refer to the line segment that goes from A to B, we can call it segment AB.”

#### Ray

– Example: “If we have a point A and a point B on a line such that B is on the ray that extends from A, we can refer to the ray as ray AB.”

#### Right angle

– Example: “If we have a square, each of its four corners forms a right angle, and we can represent each of these angles using the symbol ⊾.”

#### Angle

– Example: “If we have two intersecting lines, the angle formed by the two lines can be represented using the symbol ∠ABC, where A and C are points on one line and B is the vertex of the angle.”

#### Summation

– Example: “The sum of 3 and 5 is 8, which we can write as 3 + 5 = 8.” (Σ(3, 5)=8)

#### Braces (grouping)

– Example: “If we want to represent the set of all even numbers between 1 and 10, we can write it as {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, using braces to group together the elements of the set.”

#### Brackets

– Example:  “If we want to distribute the factor 3 to the sum of 4 and 2, we can write it as 3[4 + 2], which means 3 times the sum of 4 and 2.”