Subordinating Conjunctions! Learn how to use Subordinating Conjunctions and list of Subordinating Conjunctions in English with examples and ESL printable worksheets. In English grammar, there are two types of clause, the dependent clause and the independent clause and when a sentence requires the linking of the two, a subordinating conjunction is required. This is a very important part of English grammar which is essential to anyone studying the language.
What is a Subordinating Conjunction?
In this section, we are going to be looking at the subordinate conjunction and how it is used within a sentence. You will learn how a subordinate clause can show a cause and effect relationship between two clauses and be more confident in forming these types of sentences.
A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the dependent clause(s) and the independent clause(s).
The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include: than, rather than, whether, as much as, whereas, that, whatever, which, whichever, after, as soon as, as long as, before, by the time, now that, once, since, till, until, when, whenever, while, though, although, even though, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, where, wherever, if, only if, unless, provided that, assuming that, even if, in case (that), lest, how, as though, as if, because, since, so that, in order (that), that, as …
(NOTE: What is an independent clause? It is a unit which contains a subject and a verb. For example, “It was raining” is a independent clause; the subject is “it,” and the verb is “was raining.” A dependent clause is a clause which cannot exist on its own; it needs a independent clause to go with it.)
List of Subordinating Conjunctions with Examples
In English, there are lots of subordinating conjunctions, but the most common ones, along with a few examples of how subordinating conjunctions are used, are as follows:
E.g. He is cleverer than I am.
- Rather than
E.g. I chose to learn German rather than French.
E.g. She was uncertain whether to stay or leave.
- As much as
E.g. He doesn’t earn as much as me.
E.g. Elliot is tall and blond, whereas his brother is short and has dark hair.
E.g. She went to the school that my father went to.
E.g. I copied in my notebook whatever he wrote on the blackboard.
E.g. He developed the films which he had taken.
E.g. Mary will eat chocolate cake or donut, whichever is delicious.
E.g. Mary closed his diary after writing about that day’s events.
- As soon as
E.g. A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born.
- As long as
E.g. You can use my car as long as you drive carefully.
E.g. He always feeds the dogs before he goes to school.
- By the time
E.g. By the time ambulancemen arrived, he was unconscious.
- Now that
E.g. You can go and play now that you have finished your homework.
E.g. Once you learn it, you never forget.
E.g. Mary has danced since she was five.
E.g. James lived with his parents till he was twenty – five.
E.g. You can stay on the bus until you reach London.
E.g. Tom’s parents cheered for him when he crossed the finished line.
E.g. Whenever we go abroad, we take as many pictures as possible.
E.g. While I was walking to the market, I met Jenny.
E.g. Though it was raining, she went out.
E.g. Although the kitchen is small, it is well designed.
- Even though
E.g. Even though he’s a millionaire, he lives in a very small flat.
E.g. The person who made the mess needs to clean it.
E.g. Whoever leaves last should turn off the light.
E.g. He’s the man whom I met in Greece.
E.g. He was free to marry whomever he chose.
E.g. She’s the student whose handwriting is the best in my class.
E.g. This is the park where we played.
E.g. Wherever you go in the world, you’ll always find someone who speaks English.
E.g. If you leave, I will be lonely.
- Only if
E.g. Only if a teacher has given permission is a student allowed to leave the room.
E.g. You won’t succeed unless you work hard.
- Provided that
E.g. I was allowed to go off by myself provided that I promised to be careful.
- Assuming that
E.g. I hope to go to college next year, assuming that I pass my exams.
- Even if
E.g. Even if you have already bought your ticket, you will still need to wait in line.
- In case (that)
E.g. I have my umbrella with me in case it rains.
E.g. Study hard lest you should fail.
E.g. She taught him how to play the piano.
- As though
E.g. They look as though they’re heading for divorce.
- As if
E.g. At sunset, the sun looks as if it is going down.
E.g. I love Matisse’s work because he uses color so brilliantly.
E.g. Since we’ve got a few minutes to wait for the train, let’s have a cup of coffee.
- So that
E.g. I’ll go by car so that I can take more luggage.
- In order (that)
E.g. Do exercises in order that your health may improve.
E.g. We eat that we may live.
E.g. We played chess all evening as we had nothing better to do.