What Are Nouns? Learn how to identify nouns and types of nouns in English.
What Are Nouns?
Nouns are described as words that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, etc.
Nouns are a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea.
Types of Nouns
Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can, in principle at least, be observed by at least one of the senses.
A common noun is a noun that’s not the name of any particular person, place, or thing (for instance, singer, river, and tablet).
A proper noun is a noun that refers to a specific person, place, or thing (Lady Gaga, Monongahela River, and iPad).
A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities, as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities.
Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts. While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun “art”, which usually refers to a concept but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts.
Some abstract nouns developed etymologically by figurative extension from literal roots. These include drawback, fraction, holdout, and uptake. Similarly, some nouns have both abstract and concrete senses, with the latter having developed by figurative extension from the former. These include view, filter, structure, and key.
In English, many abstract nouns are formed by adding noun-forming suffixes to adjectives or verbs. Examples are happiness, circulation and serenity.
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Countable and Uncountable nouns vary from language to language. In some languages, there are no countable nouns. In addition, some nouns that are uncountable in English may be countable in other languages.
Countable nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or counting quantifiers, and can take an indefinite article such as a or an. Examples of count nouns are book, orange, cat, animal, man…
Uncountable nouns differ from count nouns in precisely that respect: they cannot take plurals or combine with number words or the above type of quantifiers.
For example, it is not possible to refer to a furniture or three furnitures. This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between count and non-count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns present these entities.
Many nouns have both countable and uncountable uses; for example, beer is countable in “He ordered a coffee.“, but uncountable in “Would you like some coffee?”
Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include flock, crowd, committee, choir, group, team. These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for.
Most English compound nouns are noun phrases that include a noun modified by adjectives or noun adjuncts.
Most English compound nouns that consist of more than two words can be constructed recursively by combining two words at a time. Combining science and fiction, and then combining the resulting compound with writer, for example, can construct the compound science fiction writer. Some compounds, such as salt and pepper or mother-of-pearl, cannot be constructed in this way.
A possessive noun is a noun that names who or what owns or has possession of something.
In most cases, for singular nouns to show that possession, we add an apostrophe + s. For plural nouns we simply an apostrophe except for those few plural nouns that do not end in s.
Regular Plural Nouns
Learn how to form regular plural nouns in English with examples.
- Most singular nouns are made plural by adding -s to the end of the singular form.
- When a noun ends in a sibilant sound – /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ – the plural is formed by adding -es, or -s if the singular already ends in -e.
- The plural form of some nouns that end in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ is made by changing the ending to -V(es).
- When a noun ends in “o” preceded by a consonant, the plural in many cases is spelled by adding -es.
- Nouns that end in ‘o’ preceded by a vowel are made plural by adding -s.
- When the ‘y’ follows a consonant, changing ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding -es.
- When the ‘y’ follows a vowel, the plural is formed by retaining the ‘y’ and adding -s.
Irregular Plural Nouns
Learn the difference between plural and singular nouns; and different ways to form Irregular Plural Nouns in English.